Example: I have been to Rome. Have you been to Rome?
Reza hasn’t been to Rome. Bea has been to Rome.

Differences in use: preterito perfecto and present perfect

XI’ve said (before) that I teach EnglishX – He dicho que soy professor
XWhat has she said?X – “What did she say.”
I said before that I teach Spanish.
Craig has many ‘ingrained errors’ when he speaks Spanish (los errores adquiridos).
Bea is going to take it into account and correct his Spanish in the future. (take it into account = tener en cuenta)
Ha llegado hace un rato. – She arrived a little while ago. (ago almost always goes together with the past simple tense).
Cuando lo he visto no he podido creerlo. – When I saw it I couldn’t believe it.
Bea says, “TRY NOT TO TRANSLATE from Spanish to English. ”


Positive: I’ve already visited Cuba.
Negative: I haven’t visited Argentina yet. (yet = aun/todavia)
Question: Have you visited Latin America yet?

Bea has been to Latin America. She has been to Honduras and Nicaragua. She went about ten years ago.
Reza: “So you have been in a war zone.”
Bea. I have!
Reza has been to Cuba, and he wants to go back!
Use already for positive sentences: “I’ve already visited Cuba”
Use yet for negative sentences and questions: Have you been to Latin America yet?” – “Reza hasn’t been to Argentina yet.”

Already can be used for questions:

Reza: “Craig, have you already visited Peru?”
Has Craig already been to Peru? (Reza used ‘already’ because he expects the answer ‘yes’- No, Craig hasn’t been to Peru yet.
“Have you already finished your dinner?” – “¿Ya has acabado?, “¿Ya has terminado?”
“Haven’t you finished yet?” (a negative question)

Already normally goes before the past participle: “I’ve already visited Cuba.”. It can also go at the end: “I’ve visited Cuba already.”

STILL – Use still for negative sentences and negative questions with the present perfect.

Craig STILL hasn’t visited Disneyland = Craig hasn’t visited Disneyland YET. (the same meaning)
Have you STILL not tidied your room? (a negative question)
Have you STILL not finished your homework? (Still is used to give emphasis or surprise – It’s important to stress and emphasize still to show surprise)

JUST – Just is very common with the present perfect in English (but not in Spanish):

“He’s just gone.” – se acabó de ir
“I’ve just finished.”
“I’ve just had dinner.”
“I’ve just had a coffee.”
“He’s just been here.”

SO FAR – “He hasn’t given me any homework so far.” (the same as already/yet)

So far is more common in informal English. The position of so far is usually at the beginning or at the end of the clause: So far he hasn’t done any writing. / He hasn’t done any writing so far.

Present perfect simple and present perfect continuous

“How long have you been teaching?” – (present perfect continuous)
“I’ve been teaching for 20 years.”
Reza has been teaching for 20 years.
Bea has been teaching for 25 years.
“I’ve taught in Spain, France, Thailand and the UK.” (present perfect simple)
“I’ve been teaching for 20 years.” (Use the present perfect continuous for something that began in the past and continues up to now)
“How long have you been living in Valencia?”
“Craig has been living in Valencia for 18 years.” (Craig came to Valencia in 1997 and he lives there now.)
Valencia football club have been playing well (emphasis on the activity of playing)
Valencia football club have won 6 games this season (emphasis on the NUMBER of games they have won from the past until now)
Craig has taught in many countries (personal experience with no time reference)
Bea has written three letters today (emphasis on the number of letters)
I’ve been living here for 20 years / I’ve lived here for 20 years (very similar meaning)
Bea has worked there for 5 years / Bea has been working there for 5 years (very similar meaning)
Reza: “I’ve been painting the house.” (That’s why his flat is a mess and he has paint on his clothes and in his hair. – There is some evidence of activity). Reza may, or may not, have finished.
Reza: “I’ve painted the house.” (It looks lovely! – a finished action)

The present perfect continuous in Spanish is often formed with the verb “llevar”:

“I’ve been living in Valencia for 20 years.” – Llevo 20 años viviendo en Valencia. / Vivo aquí desde hace 20 años.
¡OJO! – XI live here during 20 yearsX is not correct!
Bea hates fig rolls! (galletas de higo).

*Dispones de más PODCAST en inglés publicados en los cuadernos anteriores
a los que puedes acceder directamente así como al índice de su contenido.


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